Author Archives: kujourcivics

Former journalism students vote more frequently

Nationally representative data show that former student journalists vote more frequently in their late teens and early 20s than their peers with no journalism experience. The study, conducted by Peter Bobkowski and Patrick Miller of the University of Kansas, also suggests that the civic boost from journalism is especially pronounced for students from lower socioeconomic… Read More »

Forging Lifetime Citizenship: Statistics

There were statistically significant differences in students’ future civic engagement between students who scored as follows on current civic-media efficacy: – 3 and all values equal to and over 3.75 – 3.25 and all values equal to and over 3.75 – 3.5 and all values equal to and over 3.75 – 3.75 and 4.25, 4.75,… Read More »

Efficacy Rises with Journalism Experience: Statistics

There is a statistically significant difference in media-civic efficacy between first-year journalism students and students who take journalism for two or more years. There is a statistically significant difference in media civic efficacy between journalism students who contribute to a news publication and those who do not contribute to a news publication.

Lighter Teacher Control: Statistics

There are statistically significant differences in media-civic efficacy between students whose teachers scored as follows on the teacher control questions: – 1.25 and 1.75 – 1.5 and 1.75 – 1.25 and 2 – 1.5 and 2 – 1.25 and 2.25 – 1.5 and 2.25 – 1.25 and 2.5 – 1.5 and 2.5 – 1.25 and… Read More »

Positive School Climates: Statistics

There was a statistically significant difference in media-civic efficacy between students in schools that scored below average on school climate and students in schools that scored above average on school climate.

Student survey

If you would like your students to take the civic-media efficacy survey, you can: Direct them to take it using this link. If you would like to paste the full link, it is: To request the results of your students’ surveys, please email Peter Bobkowski ( The survey asks each respondent for his/her name… Read More »

Positive School Climates Foster Civic Journalism

A positive climate means that teachers and students respect and listen to one another, that teachers set a high standard for their students, and that students feel supported by their teachers. Ten survey questions asked about these school qualities. On average, students agreed slightly (4.4 on a 6-point scale) that their schools fostered positive climates.… Read More »

Support of First Amendment Empowers Students

Students rated their support for the freedom of expression with five questions about First Amendment rights: the rights to voice unpopular opinions, use offensive lyrics, deface the flag, criticize the government, and publish controversial content. They also indicated if they think First Amendment rights go too far. Most students endorsed at least four of the… Read More »

Lighter Teacher Control Yields Greater Student Confidence

Students are more confident in their own ability to use the media as a tool of civic change when their journalism teachers exercise less direct control over their news publications and websites. To estimate the level of control, teachers reported how frequently they worried about their students publishing controversial content, discouraged their students from covering… Read More »